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Manoel Francisco de Campos Neto (1),
Jorge Paulete Vanrell (2),
Vicente Palmiro Silva Lima (3),
Luiz Marcos Turdera (4),
Belgath Fernandes Cardoso (5),
Alessandra Paiva Puertas Alves (6)
(1) Expert Medical Officer – POLITEC – Legal Medicine Section – Cáceres-MT Regional and Traumato-Orthopedist of the TRAUMA and EMERGENCY team of HRAF – Antonio Fontes Regional Hospital – Cáceres – MT – (firstname.lastname@example.org). (2) Doctor of Science; Former Medical Doctor of the Superintendent of the Technical-Scientific Police of the Secretariat of Public Security of São Paulo, Professor of Legal Medicine at the Paulista University Law Course (UNIP); Professor of the Master’s Degree in Legal Medicine at the University of Valencia (Spain); Professor of Legal Medicine and Criminology at the Civil Police Academy of São Paulo. (3) Traumato-Orthopedist of the Trauma and Emergency team of the Regional Hospital of Cáceres-MT. (4) Labor and Traumato-Orthopedist Judicial Expert of the Trauma and Emergency team of the Regional Hospital of Cáceres-MT. (5) Biomedical, Master in Tropical Diseases, Professor of Molecular Biology at the Biomedicine Course of the Faculty of Cuiabá, Coordinator of Quality Assurance of POLITEC / MT. (6) Criminal Officer – Former Metropolitan Director of Forensic Laboratory – Coordination of Molecular Biology (Forensic DNA Laboratory / POLITEC-MT).
INTRODUCTION: Human fingerprint identification is recognized for its immutability, durability and variability. In cases of amputations, quartering or serious detachment of the fingerprints, however, other methods are necessary. Among these, anthropology uses bones to obtain primordial anatomical information, and dental comparison is useful in situations where only bones, teeth, and hair remain. Molecular techniques have a high cost, but their cost-effectiveness is reflected in the processes of decomposition, fragmentation, incineration or non-existence of comparative data. In DNA typing, the reference is blood. In the post-mortem the same must be collected by cardiac puncture and deposited in the FTA® (Flinders Technology Associates) filter, however, this will depend on the cadaveric viability. In the absence of FTA, it is important to have a long-lasting, low-cost technique. In this sense, we recommend the collection and storage of hair follicules in time prior to burial in case of doubts regarding identification, which will avoid unnecessary exhumations. METHODOLOGY: An experimental study was conducted, based on cases that occurred in Cáceres / MT. After the external inspection, the site was washed and with the aid of hemostatic forceps we extracted a sample of whole hair, including follicules. These were placed on a sterile bench for drying at room temperature, avoiding fungal contamination. The material was packed in paper or plastic envelope stapled in the report, with all preliminary notes for filing. In the necropsy report we inform the procedure. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK: The possibility of DNA detection is proportional to the amount of hairs striped with follicules (each one has up to 750 ng of DNA). RESULTS: After six years of adopting the method, with some samples being tested, exhumations were no longer necessary to confirm identity. CONCLUSIONS: The implantation of this simple, practical and free method for the previous collection and storage of biological samples can be applied in all Brazilian services (mainly in the interior), as it would avoid unnecessary exhumations and discourage fraud in the identification of Unknown.
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2. CAMPOS NETO, M.F .; PAULETE VANRELL, J. Atlas of Legal Medicine – Practical Guide for Doctors and Operators of Law – Volume I – Identification by DNA – (p.95 -107 to 112) -1ª Ed, LEUD Publishing House, 2014.
3. HOCHMEISTER, M. “PCR analysis of DNA from fresh and decomposed bodies and skeletal remains in medical legal death investigations.” In: LINCON, P. (Editors). Forensic DNA Profiling Protocols. Human Press, 1998, p. 19-26.
4. SILVA, L.A.F .; PASSOS, N.S. Forensic DNA – Collection of Biological Samples at Sites of Crimes for DNA Study. Maceió: UFAL, 2006. p. 84.